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UEPlay游藝館 - 一個探討童玩、玩具、遊戲、游藝、教育的空間
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UEPlay游藝館

一個探討童玩、玩具、遊戲、游藝、教育的空間

November 18th, 2013

【牛奶盒紙工-擺動偶】


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文圖:林士真

生活周遭有很多可以再利用的物品,只要用點心思改造設計,就可以成為好玩的玩具,動腦又動手。

這裡介紹一個利用牛奶空盒做成的偶,只要輕輕上下扭動牛奶盒,動物偶身體就會

材料: 牛奶空盒、蛋糕盤各一個

步驟

1.將牛奶盒對剪開來後,再將封口部分剪開。

milk-puppet1-1.jpg

2. 將牛奶盒剪開2公分,再往下摺。

milk-puppet2a.jpg

3. 翻面,在兩片牛奶盒外側上面畫出造型左右兩邊身體

milk-puppet3a.jpg

4. 將身體造型剪好。

milk-puppet3-1a.jpg

5. 將左右兩邊身體釘在一起。

milk-puppet4a.jpg milk-puppet6a.jpg

6. 利用剩餘的牛奶盒作一三角體,將三角體黏在牛奶盒造型上。 

milk-puppet7a.jpg   milk-puppet9a.jpg 

7. 在蛋糕盤上畫動物臉,再將造型蛋糕盤黏在三角體。

milk-puppet10a.jpg milk-puppet13d.jpg 

8. 加上裝飾,完成。

                                     milk-puppet12a.jpg 

June 5th, 2013

永和游藝屋


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文圖:張世宗

「聽,我忘記了;看,我知道了;做,我了解了。」-古諺

一.成立宗旨

過去學校是獲取知識的主要殿堂,在傳統「勤有功,嬉無益」價值觀的影響之下,「玩」被認為是干擾學習的活動。而今網路資訊豐沛易取得,加上少子化人口發展趨勢,帶來了學校教育功能和市場的雙重萎縮;也帶來了數位媒體網路市場的興起。但相對於學校和網路二者提供的都是視聽資訊、虛擬間接之學習經驗,「玩」(或「遊戲」)卻是一種主動性、多感官、的學習體驗,乃造就出以作為主動學習、全心投入、全人成長的非正式教育策略,這是一種結合提升個人能力成長的「教育」(Edu-cation) 和內在主動力驅使的「娛樂」(Enter-tainment) 兩大功能,達成「樂育」(Edutainment) 自我主動學習成就的新理念。於是乎,「有目的的玩」(Play with purpose) 和「有意義的玩」(meaningful play)都是當今教育功能和學習策略發展的新走向;而「玩物喪志」舊觀念也進化成「玩物尚智」的新理念了!

在此大趨勢之下,呼應新社教需求的「游藝屋」誕生了!永和游藝屋為台灣另類教育學會游藝小組成員張世宗教授與倪鳴香教授共同催生與規畫的場所,是一個提供全齡樂育功能的「社區化行動兒童博物館」發展雛型;是一個可以讓參與者自由探索操作的遊戲空間;更是結合物教境教體驗的學習場域。在這裡我們強調「請動手」的操作與創作經驗,並歡迎大小兒童和樂齡兒童一起參與,藉由經常更迭置換的遊具、學具單元,來促成「動手、動腦、動心」的主動學習,達成自由學習、自我成長之目的。

游藝屋不是一般安親或托育機構,卻是適合全家大小共遊共學的社區樂育博物館,我們企盼的是跨代親子甚至隔代祖孫都能來此互動同玩;也期待家長陪同孩子到來,共同享受此動手操作、創作,及共同解決困難的樂育饗宴。

ue house

二.理念基礎

非正式教育

所謂「非正式教育」(informal education)指得是雖無正式性的教材教法教師等,人們卻可以獲得學習與成長的統整性、隱性之非形式化自主學習機會 (Baroody, 1987)。此種學習在學校圍牆外常觀察到的,學習者本人之外並不必有他人在場,學習的成效通常是取決於自由意願的「參觀者」(visitors)與展示物件互動或參與活動所得到的興趣、能力與感動,其教學策略是「自由學習」(free learning)、「探索學習」(discovery learning),重視情意性的教學目標與意義。

屬於非正規教育機構的博物館、美術館、親子館等,提供的是非正式教育,其境教學習場域的學習經驗類同於「劇場」或「空間化課程」,差別在過劇場是表演藝術的型態— 觀眾靜坐,舞台上表演者動作並換幕,以時間來串連各幕劇情,其進行換幕是有序的;而博物館、親子館則是採用功能分區(zoning),展品固定位置,參觀者(visitors)自行遊移於各展示區,「策展者」(curators) 類似導演,執行其展示計畫的裝置作業,而感受成果的觀眾可以依照當時當下的心情、體能、興趣等個人因素,自己決定要觀察或操作何物、自訂瀏覽次序流程、自由決定何時終止…等,他們的角色是主動的學習者(active learners)

在此種「非正式教育」學習模式之下,學習者可自由地參觀探索吸收,卻也可能自由地忽略某些要項(除非吸引他們並產生好奇心主動參與),然而他們所吸收和潛移默化的成效,卻可以影響很久,學習者學習所得的自己內化、吸收、建構的真“知識”(knowledge)

另外,在此我們也注意到「非正式學習」所具的特質,如:自由意願、與物件互動、興趣導向、自主學習…等,在在都與另一主動學習策略「玩」的特質相通,而這兩者都兼具有:「主動性」和「愉悅性」、「具體性」…等的學習特質,這項發現也指出了屬於非正式教育的博物館教育、親子館教育所特有的另一項特性與教育意義之所在。這項發現也指出了屬於非正式教育的博物館教育、美術館教育所特有的,另一項特性與教育意義之所在,對於我們所關心的親子館功能規劃,自然也不出其外。

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■玩與樂育— 非正式教育的主動學習

過去在「勤有功,嬉無益」、「玩物喪志」的價值觀下,玩常被認為是影響學業學習的罪惡行為。而在大多數人的觀念中,「玩」只是一種消遣、娛樂或工作之餘的調劑活動,但它在人類行為與身心發展上卻扮演著非常重要的角色。尤其是在幼兒階段的生活中,玩佔有極高的頻率及極長的時段。值得注意的是—兒童對玩的態度與成人會有一些根本上的差異。對成人而言,玩與工作、學習是分開的,甚至是對立的;然而對幼兒而言,玩就是工作與學習。

在此我們所討論的主題是處在人生早期階段的幼兒,對年紀比較小的幼兒來說,玩更是和外界互動學習的主要方式,甚至可能是唯一有效的方式。但是到「親子館」的參與者除了幼兒之外,更包括作為照護者(care-giver)的「親職」人員其實在過去的研究和對兒童博物館訪眾的觀察中,筆者就發現對兒童、成人而言,玩或遊戲都可以是有效的主動學習(active learning) 和非正式學習手段,此一特性對於現今逐漸被重視的「終身教育」 (life-long education) ,以及「全人教育」(whole-personal education)等理想的實踐,具有更深遠的意義(張世宗,2008)。準此筆者認為將「玩物喪志」改成「玩物尚智」的時機已經來臨,結合教育(Education) 和消遣娛樂(Entertainment)兩種概念的娛樂教育「樂育」 (Edu-tainment) 新教育觀也誕生了,這是「德∕智∕體∕群∕美」五育之外的「第六育」;也是終生學習教學策略開發與實施的基礎。

如今此種非正式的樂育已經是一種全球性新的教育走向和趨勢;並且其應用的對向橫跨學前教育、學校正式教育,一直到銀髮族的終身教育等。因此,我們呼籲大眾解此種學習模式在新興的社會終身教育,以及主動性全人學習的重要,並建議:在學校的五育之外,另外再加上針對此種「樂育」—第六育的研究、瞭解與應用,而其應用正與我們所關注的游藝館設立功能規劃相合。

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■非正式「樂育」學習的特質

自成人的角度視之,自古即有「勤有功;嬉無益」(學排斥玩)的看法,或者認為只有能說出、寫出或透過「紙筆測驗」重述出學過記住的資訊(前述杜威說的“知識的記錄”)才算是有成效的學習。我們可以稱此種學習模式為“座中學”,學生是被動地坐在講台下受教的學習者。然而真正的知識是個體將實做具體經驗內化後,自我重新建構而得的。古諺說得好︰「我聽,我忘記了;我看,我知道了;我做,我瞭解了。」說的正是此道理。

透過生活中實際的活動–「玩」,孩子們可以從和外界接觸、互動而得的多感官經驗中,自行吸收、自我建構、主動學習、自然瞭解。藉著「玩」,孩子們獲得了“知識”(knowledge)和“能力”;藉著「玩」,孩子們也將自己本身已有的心像與動力投射到外界環境,並且創造出不同形式的“作品”這也就是「做中學」(learning by doing)教育的真義。

另外,在「玩」(也就是“自然、主動的學習”)的過程中,因為沒有“教學者”在前面領導、指揮,孩子們必須自己摸索探路;也有可能會犯錯。引用皮亞傑(Jean Piaget) 的認知學習理論來討論,當個體在犯錯時,反而有可能提供了除了“同化”(Assimilation) 正確知識的學習經驗外,又多出了一種“調適” (Accommodation)  錯誤知識的學習經驗。在學習的效能上,後者反而更能提供自省與建構更高一層次知識 “基模” (Schema) 的學習機會。於是乎,透過「玩」,孩子們不但可以從和外界接觸而得的 “正確” 經驗中學習;更可以由和外界接觸而得的 “錯誤”經驗中學習。原來學習活動的“成果”固然重要,但視如何獲得此成果的 “管道”也是同樣的重要啊這也就是「錯中學」(learning from mistakes)教育的真義。

經由以上的說明,我們對於新世紀社會人口結構和需求的新發展,以及兒童的生活學習管道與教學應用策略有了較清楚的瞭解,這些瞭解對親子館或游藝館的成立目的和所能提供的功能之釐清有極大的參考價值。

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■「玩」的樂育應用策略

由前面對「正式學習」和「非正式學習」的解說,我們瞭解「正式學習」和「非正式學習」是兩種形式上相異、功能上卻互補的兩種學習模式;我們也可以看到「樂育」所提倡的「玩」正是屬於非正式學習的一種,將它與學校進行的正規教育的學習模式相比較,我們發現兩者基本上是對立卻可重疊,而又互不排斥的兩種學習模式。

玩能引起主動學習動機,但教學能提供比較具結構性的資訊和知識系統。兩者二者的功能是平行、互補、又不互相取代的平行雙軌,彼此都不能取代對方的功能— 遊戲無法取代學校系統化學習的功能;但學校也受益於遊戲帶給學生的主動學習效應。我們將玩的非正式學習和學校的正式教學作功能結合,可以應用玩的特性來引起學習者內部學習動機,同時也能引導、鼓勵他們回到學校去學習更結構性的知識體系(Chang, S. T. 1989);同樣地,我們也可以在僵化的學校教育體系中,注入一股主動學習意願和潛沉但影響深遠的文化動力。此種功能也是此種非制式教育的價值所在:一方面鼓舞孩子們的對學習的動機;另一方面幫助學校教育更有效的進行。

在親子館或相關兒童館的樂育活動功能規劃應用方面,經由以上對「玩」的互動對象和學習應用策略分析的瞭解,我們可以應用「物玩」、「境遊」、「人戲」三大互動管道與類型,開發適合的教材、情境、和讓親子一起互動的學習活動。

另外我們在進行親子館的功規劃能時,除了關照幼兒的學習外,也不宜忽略了隨伴而來的親職人員也是我們社會教育推廣服務的對象。因此對親子館的功能規劃而言,我們可以在遊戲學習的空間場域中,設置能讓幼兒自行進行多感官探索體驗的互動刺激媒介;也可以提供讓到訪親子觀眾(包含幼兒和成人)都可以操控互動學習的物件或玩具、學具、教具等(見圖1,林士真、張世宗,2012),這正呼應了—— 親子館是「遊戲空間」,同時也是「學習場域」的社區型開放性非正式樂育學習的功能特性。

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                                「玩」的三大互動對象和基本分類

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■境教學習場域和教學策略的擴充

號稱「知識殿堂」的學校是我們最熟悉的教育機構,其教學模式是以老師主導「言教」為主的被動式學習。當學校正式學教育不再獨大時,言教也就逐漸失去獨尊的地位。除了以視聽媒體為主的學校教育之外,我們需要另一種不必考試和外在壓力的驅動與制約,卻是由己身內部動力驅使的主動學習策略,這就是「物玩」—主動性操作學習本能和「境教」—自動性體驗學習等非正式學習的發揮空間了。我們也發現除了學校內進行的正式教育外,主動性的「玩」是作為生活場域中和體制外教育的一種非正式主動學習策略 ,它雖然沒顯著教學行為過程與成果考試評量,成效較不易立刻發現、彰顯,但對大多數人們的成長與學習實有更多、更廣、更深遠的影響

     當我們以較宏觀眼光審視教育,我們發現「學校」並非唯一的學習場域;並且除了教材、教具外,「探索環境」和「操作物件」也是一個潛性的教學媒介,只是其形式與一般所常見、顯性的“教材教法”、“教學媒體”等大異其趣,此種相對於體制內學校教育的另類境教加上物教的學策略習,屬於一種非正規教育機構和非正式學習的應用策略,這也是我們現在探討主題— 兒童教育館、親子館等非正規機構、非正式境教學習場域的意義。

值得注意的是— 雖然此種學習其產生的實質“成效”(efficiency) 在學習過程中雖不易察覺,但其產生的“效應”(effects) 卻十分明顯。以「家庭」為例:

所謂「家庭教育」,除了父母長輩們的身教、言教外,還包括不可見的「境教」–環境資源和氛圍的蘊育和影響;同樣的道理,「學校教學」除了老師的「教」外,更包含學生主動於環境教材資源中自己主動「學」得的教育功能,當然也要包括自周遭環境中探索互動、潛移默化自動「習」到的教育功能(張世宗, 2002,10

環境影響人們思考行為,也是學習的管道媒介,此種境教學習乃屬於潛在課程 (hidden curriculum) 的一種,其實在進入學校之前,家庭就可說是我們人生的第一個學習環境,而在離開學校之後,除了家庭之外我們還有更廣大的非正式境教學習機會,例如整個社會、博物館、美術館……等,都是屬於提供非正式學習的社會教育場域。雖然此境教性功能已經被注意到了,但尚缺乏對其作用與效應的瞭解,以及應如何合理、有效地應用此效應來達到成就新生代兒童非正規教育的目的……,這些值得探討的議題,尚待我們作更進一步地深入研究。

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                    圖非正式學習策略和非正規機構的應用範疇

話說回來,學校場域也有非正式學習的發展空間—如下課自由活動、社團活動等,在學校外常觀察到有許多教育管道,如:博物館、美術館、家庭、甚至大眾媒體…等,都是具非正式教育功能的機構。此種學習除學習者本人之外並不必有教學者在場,學習的成效通常是取決於自由意願的參觀者與展示物件互動或參與活動所得到的興趣、能力與感動,其教學策略是「自由學習」(free learning)、「探索學習」(discovery learning),重視情意性的教學目標與意義(見圖2 

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除了親子館以外,一般的博物館、美術館也都是屬於「境教」形式的非正式學習場域,而且這種境教學習場域的體驗類同於劇場的經驗,只不過到劇場觀戲時是觀眾靜坐,舞台在動作並隨劇情發展而換幕,以時間來串連各幕劇情,其進行情節是有序的;而在博物館、美術館、兒童教育館等境教學習空間則是採用功能分區 (zoning),展品固定位置,參觀者 (visitors) 自行遊移於各展示區,「策展者」(curators) 類似導演,執行其展示計畫的裝置作業,而感受成果的觀眾可以依照當時當下的心情、體能、興趣等個人因素,自己決定要觀察或操作何物、自訂瀏覽次序流程、自由決定何時終止……等,他們的角色是主動的學習者 (active learners)

相關參考書目

林士真、張世宗(2011)。幼兒教具設計與應用。台北:洪業。

張世宗(1996)。幼兒教育「空間」專輯。台北:教育部國教司。

張世宗(1999)從開放教育論教學的開發與開放。於北縣教育雙月刊,(26), 29-35

張世宗(2002)。幼稚園環境規劃與設計。台北:台北縣政府。 

June 5th, 2013

游藝學之『創作童玩』(T)的分類說明


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文:張世宗

創作童玩」泛指在孩童們利用周遭環境可得知素材自己創作出各式各樣的互動性、操作性等玩具的總和稱呼,通常都具有挑戰個人手工和巧思等創作能力的特質,在過去是孩童們自做作自玩的傳統游藝;也是歷代孩童互相傳授學習、在學校之外創作能力和培育創造力、想像力…等的另類學習經驗。

創作童玩依照其創作形式的差異,可以再分為:1〉、2〉、3編織〉、4〉、5〉、6〉、7〉、8〉…等八種主要分類。列表如下:

T鄉土童玩分類

說明

舉例

T1形》

以可塑性材質創作造形

黏土、紙塑

T2形》

〈平面〉

〈立體〉

繪畫、剪黏、

鐵絲造形

T3編織

線性纖維材料之造形活動

∕結∕串∕繡∕織∕抽紗…

T4構》

3d固體單元之堆疊造形

積木、

T5構》

3d固體固性組合一體造形

 

T6構》

3d固體可彈性變形之組合

 

T7能》

應用位能作功之固體或機構造形

 

T8能》

具操作性、挑戰性功能之創作

毽子、日月球、…

T9題》

 

 

 

 

一、塑形:具有可塑性、形態不固定、之非固性素材 (如:沙、土…等) ,或者能隨意捏塑成形,並能作出開放性造形的柔性素材等之創作活動,如捏土、陶塑、沙雕、捏麵人…等。

二、造形:利用素材進行平面(2D)或立體(3D)等之造形創作活動,如摺紙、果雕、彩繪蛋殼、石頭…等。

三、編織:專指應用纖維質線性張力材料來進行的創作活動,包括利用線性材料繞過固定點或壓力材作轉折、交錯等,如編、結、抽…等

四、建構:將可重複堆疊組合的立體3D組件堆疊聚在一處。可再分成兩大分類:

(一)堆構(“堆積建構”):將許多3D素材組件加以組合成一完整物體,如果各組件只是以搭接或搭掛等易於分離的方式結合在一起,組件之間可隨時組合接觸;也可可隨時拆開分離時(如積木、木條、掛香塔…等),稱之。

(二)組構(“單元組合建構”):許多單元組件能夠加以組合成一完成結構體,如果各組件單元之設計容許各組件單元相互之間可任意組合後再隨意拆開,如此可不斷地組拆做造形建構實驗,或組合成開放性的各種不同造形,稱之為「組構」。如:立體單元「組構型」之玩具有:“樂高”、“我高”、“智高”…等; 以及平面單元「組構型」玩具有:“雪花片”、“百力智慧片” …等。

五、結構:將組件加以組合完成一固定形態之完整結構體,各組件是以永久性的固定形態組合一起,完成後之成果乃屬剛性且不可分開之結構體者;或者完成後結構體不再做拆開或分解的操作時,稱之為「結構」。如:房屋模形、花燈、…等。

六、機構:當將組件加以組合完成一整體結構體,構成整體之部件雖不會分離,但卻能夠有轉動、位移或變形的可能者;或者這個結構體各組件間不能再拆開分解但是卻具有可以變形的可能時,我們稱之為「機構」。如:翻花板、變形機構、滑行車…等。

七、功能:當將組件加以組合完成一整體系統,此一系統乃由一個機構物件子系統加上另一個能提供動能的子系統(如:重力、橡皮筋等),使整體系統可以產生移動、轉動或發聲等功能時,稱之。

八、技能:綜合上述各項造形技法,主要是可以讓玩者挑戰自己的技術或能力為主要功能者。如:杯劍球、沙包…等。 

May 30th, 2013

玩童共和國 2013 系列一體驗營


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給家長

有人說:「現在孩很幸為他擁有太過去親代童年想像不到的具」;也有人:「現在子很可因為們都沒在大自然土地上打 赤腳、泥巴的經驗」。

今日學童處於一種「多功課,少玩耍;多玩具,少遊戲」,量多質差且不均衡的學習經驗之環境中,他們所欠缺的不是更多的玩具, 卻是親身與大自然環境中的土地、動物、植物、甚至同儕玩伴互動遊戲經驗帶來的滿足感,以及利用原始素材「自己做、自己玩」所帶來的成就感。

「傳統著時代變而逐漸失;己做、自己的「玩童要維區關渡平原是唯一尚未發,保持著原始濕地的生態也是捷運可直接到達的都會態叢林處地。我們特別在規劃三種主要不類型活動

1)「玩」–與「物」(物件、動物…)互動。

2)「遊」–與「境」(土、草、樹…)互動。

3)「戲」–與「人」 (同儕、玩伴、團隊…)互動。

請大暫時放開機、玩,來魔幻森林」驗在大自然中「玩放學後旅,從低頭轉變為「玩童共」的公民。

共和 2013 營行程表

時間

活動名稱

地點

活動內容

 

 

一、主辦單位:中華民國新生活社會福利發展促進會

二、承辦單位:ETI Group 樂育研究團隊,崇善童軍北市 22 團,逐風農場。

三、對象:國小3-6年級男女學童。每梯次90名,保留30個免費名額給清寒家庭學生(接受學校或團體推薦)

四、活動日期:第一梯次6/29(六)第二梯次6/30(日)

五、集合地點:早上0830 北投捷運站

六、活動地點:逐風農場(台北市北投區大業路 517 )

七、活動費用:每人300元整。(含師資、場地、教具、保險等)

八、報名時間:即日起至 102 6 7 (額滿為止)

九、報名方式:網路線上報名genius.loci1959@gmail.com

十、繳費方式:劃撥帳號:19895771、戶名:中華民國新生活社會福利發展促進會,並於劃撥單備註欄註明參加活動名稱。再將收據傳真至(02)28951000  註明學員姓名或 email: genius.loci1959@gmail.com

十一、個人裝備:背包、個人餐具(碗、筷)、雨衣、水壺、健保卡、筆、筆記本。

十二、行前通知:營隊開始前一週以 email或臉書通知。

十三、報名後如因故不克參加須提出書面申請,活動前七天可退費,但須扣除報名及退費作業費(活動費用 10%),活動前六天至活動結束,恕不退費。

共和 2013 營報名表

姓名:

 

性別:□男□女

血型:

生日

 

 

March 15th, 2013

臺灣童年,百年童玩;遊習世紀,全齡游藝


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 張世宗老師於101年4月14日應邀為國立台灣圖書館101年度「臺灣學系列講座」主講:

臺灣童年,百年童玩;遊習世紀,全齡游藝

國立台灣圖書館已將該次講座的錄影音內容放在其網站上的「線上演講聽」(http://mms.ntl.edu.tw/mp.asp?mp=8)→畫面左方「臺灣學系列講座」(http://mms.ntl.edu.tw/lp.asp?ctNode=619&CtUnit=342&BaseDSD=48&mp=8),找到張世宗老師的演講點選進去(http://mms.ntl.edu.tw/sp.asp?xdurl=MP8AP/MediaPlay.asp&xItem=10661&mp=8 ),就可以聽到該次的演講。